Category Archives: art

Trolling the Heilbrunn Timeline: A Goldsmith in His Shop

Petrus Christus, A Goldsmith in His Shop (1449)

On returning from Italy, I decided it was high time I supplemented my scant knowledge of medieval and Renaissance art, so I gathered up a few books* on the subject. After reading said books, it occurred to me that a Renaissance art vacation extender might be available at the Metropolitan Museum, so I looked up the Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. I’d forgotten, if I really ever knew, what a rich resource this is, and trolling around the Medieval/Renaissance sections proved a time sink of the best sort. I picked out a few artworks to visit in person next time I could. Here’s one of those I visited yesterday.

Petrus Christus, A Goldsmith in His Shop (1449)

Christus detail

As described in the Heilbrunn Timeline, Petrus Christus was

. . . the leading painter in Bruges (Flanders) after the death of Jan van Eyck. The panel attests to Netherlandish artists’ keen interest in pictorial illusionism and meticulous attention to detail, especially in the luminous jeweled, glass, and metallic objects, secular and ecclesiastic trade wares that are examples of the goldsmith’s virtuosity. [cite]

Christus detail

Tucked in the lower right corner is a convex mirror, which put in mind John Ashbery’s meditation on a Parmigiano painting, Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror.  Turns out there was considerable fascination with convex mirrors in Christus’s time. In Christus’s painting,

The convex mirror, which links the pictorial space to the street outside, reflects two young men with a falcon (a symbol of pride and greed) and establishes a moral comparison between the imperfect world of the viewer and the world of virtue and balance depicted here. [cite]

Also notable is something now missing from the painting: a halo around the goldsmith’s head. In Peter and Linda Murray’s The Art of the Renaissance, the halo is present, and the painting is titled St Eligius and the Lovers; in the painting at the Met, the title is changed and the halo is gone. Turns out the halo was added after the fact and removed when the painting was restored. [cite; commentary on this is included in the audio samples]

In preparation for the 1994 exhibition Petrus Christus: Renaissance Master of Bruges, the issue of the halos was again raised. They were determined through technical examination to be later additions, and they were removed. With the removal of the halos, the aesthetic intentions of the artist were restored. Christus was among the first early Netherlandish painters to break through the barrier of the plain, dark background that was conventionally employed in portraiture by providing an illusionistic space to surround the figures. The addition of the halos, by contrast, introduced an element that forced the viewer to focus on the foreground, discouraging further investigation of the space beyond the picture plane. The restoration thus allowed for a renewed discussion of the function and meaning of the paintings. Neither panel was originally conceived as a religious image; the false halos had altered their intended function as secular portraits. [cite]

 Listening List

 Gelsey Bell, Rains on Me (as performed at the 2018 Resonant Bodies Festival, curated by Lucy Dhegrae)

*End note: The books, all of which I did actually read cover-to-cover. They are of varying quality: Graham-Dixon’s book, a companion to a BBC series, comes in for particular abuse, with Manchester’s book not far behind.

>Graham-Dixon, Andrew, Renaissance

>Manchester, William, A World Lit only by Fire: The Medieval Mind and the Renaissance, Portrait of an Age

>Murray, Peter and Linda, The Art of the Renaissance

>Welch, Evelyn, Art in Renaissance Italy 


Credits: The sources for quotations may be found at the links in the text. The photographs, as always on the blog unless otherwise indicated, are mine.

When in Rome: Final Days, Part 2 of 2

Giovanni da Udine, festoon detail, Loggia di Amore e Psiche

I can only say, about our last days in Rome, that we certainly did not go out with a whimper. The opposite of anything we planned, it seems, in retrospect, that we’d been building up to this apotheosis from the moment we arrived. Continue reading

When in Rome: Final Days, Part 1 of 2

View from Janiculum Hill

We settled on a new strategy for our final two days in Rome. We were again “based” in Trastevere. This time our plan was to explore only more-or-less immediate neighborhoods in an effort to minimize time spent in the logistics of finding our way around. The strategy worked better than we had any right to expect. With a minimum of time spent getting lost, we discovered a trove of Roman treasures most of which would likely not have made it to a short-term visitor “must see” list. Continue reading

When in Umbria: Spoleto, Part 2

Rocca Albornoziana, second courtyard

The Umbria portion of our travels ended with a final full day in Spoleto. Our first days in Spoleto had coincided with the Rocca Albornoziana closing days, though there was plenty to see looking out over its ramparts. Continue reading

When in Umbria: Spello

Marcantonio Grecchi, Madonna con Bambino, San Felice Vescovo e il Beato Andrea Caccioli (17 C, detail)

More frescoes, specifically “Pinturicchio’s superlative frescoes in the church of Santa Maria Maggiore,” awaited us at the hill town of Spello . . . or so we thought. [cite] Vasari didn’t think much of Pinturicchio’s work: Continue reading